Four chromosomes were resolved by pulsed field gel electrophoresis in Penicillium notatum (10.8, 9.6, 6.3 and 5.4 Mb in size) and in five different strains of Penicillium chrysogenum (10.4, 9.6, 7.3 and 6.8 Mb in the wild type). Small differences in size were found between the four chromosomes of the five P. chrysogenum strains. The penicillin gene cluster was localized by hybridization with a pcbAB probe to chromosome II of P. notatum and to chromosome I of all P. chrysogenum strains except the deletion mutant P. chrysogenum npe10, which lacks this DNA region. The pyrG gene was localized to chromosome I in P. notatum and to chromosome II in all P. chrysogenum strains except in the mutant AS-P-78 where the probe hybridized to chromosome III. A major chromosomal rearrangement seems to have occurred in this high penicillin producing strain. A fast moving DNA band observed in all gels corresponds to mitochondrial DNA. The total genome size has been calculated as 32.1 Mb in P. notatum and 34.1 Mb for the P. chrysogenum strains.