Topical nasal anaesthesia for fibreoptic bronchoscopy: lignocaine spray or gel?

Singapore Med J. 1993 Apr;34(2):148-9.


Lignocaine spray for anaesthetising the nasal mucosa for fibreoptic bronchoscopy often causes discomfort to the patient. We compared two techniques of applying nasal topical anaesthesia using either lignocaine spray (group A: 25 patients) or gel (group B: 30 patients) to assess patients' tolerance to the procedure. Both groups received 100 mg of lignocaine in the nostril, 40-50 mg to oropharynx, 120 mg to vocal cords and 40-100 mg to trachea and bronchi. Throat anaesthesia was the most common unpleasant part experienced by both groups of patients (34.5%), followed by examination of bronchi (30.6%) and nasal anaesthesia (21.8%). Significantly more patients in group A experienced discomfort or pain during nasal anaesthesia as compared to group B (p < 0.001). Patients' tolerance to the bronchoscopy was similar in both groups and the examination was performed satisfactorily in all patients. Thus, lignocaine gel is a simple technique, effective and less irritating as compared to lignocaine spray for topical nasal anaesthesia.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aerosols
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anesthesia, Local / methods*
  • Bronchoscopes
  • Bronchoscopy / methods*
  • Female
  • Fiber Optic Technology
  • Gels
  • Humans
  • Lidocaine / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Nose*
  • Oropharynx
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Pharynx


  • Aerosols
  • Gels
  • Lidocaine