Bilateral microphthalmia with blepharophimosis, linear lesions of dermal aplasia involving the face, and microcephaly were present in a newborn girl who died at age 9 months from cardiomyopathy resulting in ventricular fibrillation. Autopsy showed an atrial septum defect, persistent gross trabeculation of the left ventricle, and an arteria lusoria. This case represents a further example of a new entity for which we propose the term MIDAS syndrome. The acronym stands for microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea. Our patient is the second with this syndrome to have a major congenital heart defect. Cytogenetic studies reported in previous cases indicate that the underlying gene defect can be assigned to Xp22.3. This new X-linked male-lethal trait should be distinguished from focal dermal hypoplasia that will be found to map elsewhere on the X-chromosome.