The role of the genus Edwardsiella in human illness is reviewed. Of the three recognized species, only Edwardsiella tarda has been demonstrated to be pathogenic for humans. Chief infections associated with this species include bacterial gastroenteritis, wound infections such as cellulitis or gas gangrene associated with trauma to mucosal surfaces, and systemic disease such as septicemia, meningitis, cholecystitis, and osteomyelitis. Risk factors that are associated with E. tarda infections include exposure to aquatic environments or exotic animals (e.g., reptiles or amphibia), preexisting liver disease, conditions leading to iron overload, and dietary habits (e.g., raw fish ingestion). Although studies indicate that this bacterium is susceptible to most commonly prescribed antibiotics, fatal gastrointestinal and extraintestinal infections have been described.