Locations of the ectodermal and nonectodermal subdivisions of the epiblast at stages 3 and 4 of avian gastrulation and neurulation

J Exp Zool. 1993 Nov 15;267(4):431-46. doi: 10.1002/jez.1402670409.


A prospective fate map of the avian epiblast at late gastrula and early neurula stages has been generated through the construction of quail/chick transplantation chimeras. This map shows the subdivisions of the prospective ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, both within the epiblast prior to their ingression and within the primitive streak. The map demarcates the locations and extents of the prospective surface ectoderm, otic placodes, neural crest, and neural plate--including its postnodal levels--in prospective ectoderm of the epiblast; prospective foregut, within the prospective endoderm of the epiblast and primitive streak; and prospective notochord, somites, intermediate mesoderm, lateral plate mesoderm, and extraembryonic mesoderm in the prospective mesoderm of the epiblast and/or primitive streak. Prospective cardiogenic cells are apparently absent from the primitive streak at these stages, and contributions of the epiblast to the heart are relatively scant and inconsistent with the expected timing and directions of migrations of prospective cardiogenic cells. Mapping of the primitive streak at earlier stages in another study (García-Martinez and Schoenwolf: Developmental Biology, in press) reveals that the ingression of cardiogenic cells through the primitive streak occurs prior to late gastrula stages, suggesting that contributions of epiblast to the heart at later stages are artifactual. Tests of prospective potency, based on the projected locations of origin of various cell groups provided by the new prospective fate map, are underway.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chick Embryo / cytology*
  • Chick Embryo / growth & development
  • Chimera
  • Ectoderm / cytology*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / cytology*
  • Embryonic Development
  • Endoderm / cytology
  • Gastrula / cytology*
  • Mesoderm / cytology
  • Photomicrography
  • Quail / embryology*
  • Videotape Recording