Virtual trajectory and stiffness ellipse during multijoint arm movement predicted by neural inverse models

Biol Cybern. 1993;69(5-6):353-62.


We predict the virtual trajectories and stiffness ellipses during multijoint arm movements by computer simulations. A two-link manipulator with four single-joint muscles and two double-joint muscles is used as a model of the human arm. Physical parameters of the model are derived from several experimental data. Among them, special emphasis is put on low values of the dynamic hand stiffness recently measured during single-joint and multijoint movements. The feedback-error-learning scheme to acquire the inverse dynamics model and the inverse statics model is utilized for this prediction. The virtual trajectories are much more complex than the actual trajectories. This indicates that planning the virtual trajectory is as difficult as solving the inverse dynamics problem for medium and fast movements, and simply falsifies the advocated computational advantage of the virtual trajectory control hypothesis. Thus, we conclude that learning inverse models is essential even in the virtual trajectory control framework. Finally, we propose a new computational model to learn the complicated shape of the virtual trajectories by integrating the virtual trajectory control and the feedback-error-learning scheme.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arm*
  • Humans
  • Joints / innervation
  • Joints / physiology*
  • Mathematics
  • Models, Biological
  • Motor Activity
  • Movement*
  • Muscles / innervation
  • Muscles / physiology*
  • Nerve Net / physiology*