A prospective study of diet, smoking, and lower urinary tract cancer

Ann Epidemiol. 1993 May;3(3):211-6. doi: 10.1016/1047-2797(93)90021-u.


The association of diet and smoking with bladder cancer was investigated in a cohort study conducted in Hawaii. The study included 7995 Japanese-American men who were born between 1900 and 1919, and were examined from 1965 to 1968. After 22 years of follow-up, 96 incident cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed. Current cigarette smokers had a 2.9-fold risk of bladder cancer, compared with nonsmokers. A direct dose-response relation was observed, based on pack-years of cigarette smoking. Consumption of fruit was inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer (P = 0.038). The relative risk was 0.6 among subjects who had the most frequent (> or = 5 times/wk) intake of fruits compared to those with the least intake (< or = 1 time/wk). A weaker inverse association with milk intake was also observed (P = 0.07). Frequent consumption of fried vegetables, pickles, or coffee increased the risk of bladder cancer, but none of these foods showed a significant dose-response relationship. There was no association of other selected foods, alcohol, total calories, protein, fat, or carbohydrates with bladder cancer risk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Cohort Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Hawaii
  • Humans
  • Japan / ethnology
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / etiology*