Breast-feeding and maternal smoking in the etiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in childhood

Ann Epidemiol. 1993 Jul;3(4):387-92. doi: 10.1016/1047-2797(93)90066-d.


Medical records concerning pediatric or adolescent patients first diagnosed with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis in two New York hospitals during a 5-year period (1986 to 1990) were abstracted, and information concerning sex, age, race, birthplace, sibship size, birth order, maternal age at birth, month of birth, duration of breast-feeding, and maternal smoking was recorded. Medical records of patients presenting at the respective pediatric gastroenterology departments immediately before or after the patients with inflammatory bowel disease were seen were also abstracted in order to generate a control series. Data concerning 68 patients with Crohn's disease, 39 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 202 control patients were analyzed through multiple logistic regression. Breast-feeding was negatively associated with Crohn's disease (P approximately 0.04) and ulcerative colitis (P approximately 0.07), with relative risk point estimates around 0.5 and with evidence of duration-dependent trends in both instances. There was no evidence of association of either disease with maternal age at birth, birth order, maternal smoking, or season of birth.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Breast Feeding*
  • Child
  • Colitis, Ulcerative / etiology*
  • Crohn Disease / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution