Stability of transpedicle screwing for the osteoporotic spine. An in vitro study of the mechanical stability

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993 Nov;18(15):2240-5. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199311000-00016.


The influence of bone mineral density on the stability of transpedicle screwing was studied in the human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae. The pull-out force correlated with bone mineral density. The tilting moment (load needed to tilt the screw 4 degrees cranially at the screw-plate junction) and the cut-up force (load needed to tip the end plate up by the screw) correlated with bone mineral density. A correlation was also found between the maximum insertion torque of the screw and bone mineral density. The maximum insertion torque correlated with the pull-out force, the tilting moment, and the cut-up force. In the cyclic tilting test (200 cycles), the mean value of the tilting moment at the 200th cycle was 67.4 +/- 6.1%, compared with the first cycle. The results suggest that preoperative measurement of BMD is necessary for transpedicle screwing in osteoporotic cases, and that the cyclic tilting motion decrease its mechanical stability. The authors have also concluded that the maximum insertion torque could predict the mechanical stability.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bone Density / physiology
  • Bone Screws*
  • Cadaver
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / physiology
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery*
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology
  • Osteoporosis / surgery*
  • Stress, Mechanical