The effects of chewing-gum stick size and duration of chewing on salivary flow rate and sucrose and bicarbonate concentrations

Arch Oral Biol. 1993 Oct;38(10):885-91. doi: 10.1016/0003-9969(93)90098-7.


The objectives were to determine (1) the relations between salivary flow rate and the sample weights of chewing-gum and gum base, (2) whether any reduction in salivary flow rate with duration of chewing is due to a reduction in hardness of gum base with chewing, and (3) the sucrose and bicarbonate concentrations in saliva elicited by different weights of chewing-gum containing sucrose. Ten subjects chewed, for 20 min, samples of 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 g of gum base and of a sucrose-containing chewing-gum. With each sample, salivary flow rates peaked initially and then fell to a relatively constant value. Flow rates during the periods of 1-2 and 15-20 min were linearly related to the logarithm of sample weight. With the chewing-gum samples, virtually all the sucrose was released into the saliva during the 20 min of chewing, with peak concentrations (201-666 mM) at 1-2 min, and bicarbonate concentrations were higher with the 9-g than the 3-g samples. Six subjects chewed 3 g of gum base and within 45 min the weight of base had increased to 122% of the original, presumably due to the uptake of saliva. The hardness of gum base was determined at 21 and 36 degrees C, 21 and 36 degrees C after it had been chewed, and 21 degrees C after it had been chewed without exposure to saliva, and gave Brinell values of 0.277, 0.038, 0.022, 0.002 and 0.061, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bicarbonates / analysis*
  • Chewing Gum* / analysis
  • Female
  • Hardness
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mastication*
  • Middle Aged
  • Rubber
  • Saliva / chemistry*
  • Saliva / metabolism*
  • Secretory Rate
  • Sucrose / analysis*
  • Surface Properties
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors
  • Water


  • Bicarbonates
  • Chewing Gum
  • Water
  • Sucrose
  • Rubber