We previously reported two cDNAs for MAP kinases (cATMPK1 and cATMPK2) from a dicot plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We describe here the cloning and characterization of five additional cDNAs encoding novel MAP kinases in Arabidopsis, cATMPK3, cATMPK4, cATMPK5, cATMPK6, and cATMPK7. The amino acid residues corresponding to the sites of phosphorylation (Thr-Glu-Tyr) that are involved in the activation of animal MAP kinases are conserved in all the seven putative ATMPK proteins. Genes for MAP kinases in Arabidopsis constitute a family that contains more than seven members. Sequence analysis suggests that there are at least three subfamilies in the family of Arabidopsis genes for MAP kinases.