Novel assay for the detection of immunoglobulin G antihuman immunodeficiency virus in untreated saliva and urine

J Med Virol. 1993 Oct;41(2):159-64. doi: 10.1002/jmv.1890410212.


Epidemiological evidence and laboratory studies indicate that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV 1) is rarely, if ever, transmitted in saliva or urine. In that both specimens are easy to collect, each may be a useful alternative to serum specimens for anti-HIV screening. A rapid, simple, and robust IgG-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GACELISA) suitable for the detection of anti-HIV 1 and 2 in saliva and urine was developed. Following optimisation of the assay, 177 salivary and 568 urine specimens collected from individuals of known serostatus were investigated. The assay was 100% sensitive on 50 salivary (median OD/CO = 8.9) and 126 urinary (median OD/CO = 8.6) specimens collected from anti-HIV-positive patients. The specificity was 100% on 127 salivary specimens (median OD/CO = 0.37) and 422 urinary specimens (median OD/CO = 0.39) collected from anti-HIV-negative individuals. These findings demonstrate that GACELISA HIV 1 + 2 tests on saliva or on urine are an accurate alternative to a conventional anti-HIV test of blood. This assay is satisfactory for surveillance purposes and, with appropriate precautions, could be used clinically.

MeSH terms

  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods*
  • HIV Antibodies / analysis*
  • HIV Antibodies / urine
  • HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis*
  • HIV-1 / immunology
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / analysis
  • Saliva / microbiology*


  • HIV Antibodies
  • Immunoglobulin G