Cognitive-behavioral techniques to reduce pain: a validation study

Int J Nurs Stud. 1993 Dec;30(6):537-48. doi: 10.1016/0020-7489(93)90025-p.


The purpose of this study was to identify and validate specific activities considered important in the implementation of three non-pharmacologic pain management interventions--relaxation, distraction and guided imagery. Using a two-round Delphi survey, nurses selected for their expertise in pain management were asked to validate definitions and activities considered important in the implementation of each of these strategies. Data were analyzed using a modification of Fehring's diagnostic content validity method. From this process, a list of activities for each intervention evolved that has implications for nursing research, practice and education.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesia / methods*
  • Delphi Technique
  • Educational Status
  • Humans
  • Imagination
  • Nurses
  • Relaxation Therapy
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sampling Studies
  • Social Environment