Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin

J Invest Dermatol. 1994 Jan;102(1):122-4. doi: 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12371744.


We measured enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in human epidermis and dermis from six healthy volunteers undergoing surgical procedures. Epidermis was separated from dermis by curettage and antioxidants were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or standard spectrophotometric methods. The concentration of every antioxidant (referenced to skin wet weight) was higher in the epidermis than in the dermis. Among the enzymic antioxidants, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were higher in the epidermis compared to the dermis by 126, 61 and 215%, respectively. Catalase activity in particular was much higher (720%) in the epidermis. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which provide reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), also showed higher activity in the epidermis than the dermis by 111% and 313%, respectively. Among the lipophilic antioxidants, the concentration of alpha-tocopherol was higher in the epidermis than the dermis by 90%. The concentration of ubiquinol 10 was especially higher in the epidermis, by 900%. Among the hydrophilic antioxidants, concentrations of ascorbic acid and uric acid were also higher in the epidermis than in the dermis by 425 and 488%, respectively. Reduced glutathione and total glutathione were higher in the epidermis than in the dermis by 513 and 471%. Thus the antioxidant capacity of the human epidermis is far greater than that of dermis. As the epidermis composes the outermost 10% of the skin and acts as the initial barrier to oxidant assault, it is perhaps not surprising that it has higher levels of antioxidants.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Epidermal Cells
  • Epidermis / chemistry*
  • Female
  • Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / analysis
  • Glutathione Reductase / analysis
  • Humans
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • NADP / analysis
  • Reference Standards
  • Skin / chemistry
  • Skin / cytology
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Superoxide Dismutase / analysis
  • Ubiquinone / analogs & derivatives
  • Ubiquinone / analysis


  • Antioxidants
  • Ubiquinone
  • NADP
  • Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione Reductase
  • ubiquinol