Serum concentrations of the various complement components including the classical and the alternative pathways were determined in 58 control healthy subjects and 80 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSC). The mean concentrations of C1q, C2, C5, C6, C7, C9, and factor B were significantly increased in the SSC patients in comparison to controls, while the increases were not significant for C3 and C8. C4 was an exception in that the mean levels were found to be decreased, with 18 patients having levels < 65% of the mean normal value. Properdin was also found to be decreased, but not significantly. We found a similarity between the pattern of serum complement component concentrations in SSC patients and patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, two disorders frequently associated in the same patients. The significance of complement component patterns in these diseases is discussed.