Objective: To determine the prevalence of anal and cervical infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytologic abnormalities and to examine the relation among HPV infection, cytologic abnormalities, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus.
Methods: Anal and cervical Papanicolaou tests, HPV dot blot tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for HPV were performed concurrently in a cross-sectional study of 114 women enrolled in a community-based study of HIV infection.
Results: Cervical HPV infection was associated with HIV serostatus by both dot blot (odds ratio [OR] 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1-25) and PCR (OR 8.9, 95% CI 3.2-27). Anal HPV infection was twice as frequent as cervical and also was associated with HIV by dot blot (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-7) and PCR (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.03-6.8). Eleven percent (11 of 96) of cervical cytologies were abnormal and were associated with HIV (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.2-60.5). Fourteen percent (15 of 109) of anal cytologies were abnormal and were associated with HIV (OR 3.4, 95% CI 0.9-15.5). Among HIV-seropositive women, epithelial abnormalities were associated with lower mean CD4+ cell counts when HPV DNA was detected by dot blot at either the cervix (P = .04) or anus (P = .009). Independent predictors for cervical epithelial abnormalities were HPV DNA positivity by dot blot (OR 32.1, 95% CI 2.9-353.9) and positive HIV serostatus with CD4+ cell count below 250 cells/mm3 (OR 126.8, 95% CI 7.5-2132.6).
Conclusions: Human papillomavirus-associated epithelial abnormalities are associated with immune suppression among HIV-infected women. Anal HPV infection and disease is at least as common as cervical infection and disease among HIV-seropositive women.