Familial occurrence of agonadism and multiple internal malformations in phenotypically normal girls with 46,XY and 46,XX karyotypes, respectively: a new autosomal recessive syndrome

Am J Med Genet. 1993 Dec 1;47(8):1166-70. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320470807.


We report on 2 phenotypic sisters, one with 46,XY; the other with 46,XX. The 2 girls had similar related internal malformations, including agonadism, hypoplasia of the right pulmonary artery, hypoplasia of the right lung, isolated dextrocardia with complex vitium cordis, and diaphragmatic hernia (only sib 1) or omphalocele (only sib 2). This combination of malformations did not fit into any of the previously described syndromes. For this syndrome we suggest the acronym PAGOD ([hypoplasia of the] pulmo, and pulmonary artery, agonadism, omphalocele/diaphragmatic defect, dextrocardia). The occurrence of a basically similar set of malformations in 2 unlike sex is interpreted as evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. The different gonosomal status excludes the Y chromosome as a responsible factor. The peculiar finding of a 46,XX sex chromosome constitution combined with agonadism and an intact urogenitral tract emphasizes the concept of secondary regression of Wolffian and Müllerian structures. The associated malformations of mesodermal structures can be interpreted as midline defects. We suggest that, from the developmental field perspective, secondary regression of midline structures including the gonadal anlage explains the pathogenesis reasonably well.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Genes, Recessive*
  • Genitalia, Female / abnormalities*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics
  • Hernia, Umbilical / genetics
  • Humans
  • Karyotyping
  • Lung / abnormalities
  • Phenotype
  • Pulmonary Artery / abnormalities
  • Syndrome
  • X Chromosome
  • Y Chromosome