Learning and sexual deficiencies in transgenic mice carrying a chimeric vasoactive intestinal peptide gene

J Mol Neurosci. Fall 1993;4(3):185-93. doi: 10.1007/BF02782501.


The molecular mechanisms responsible for behavior are largely unknown. A state of the art model, paving the path from genes to behavior, is offered by transgenic animals. Candidate molecules are classic neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Transgenic mice harboring a chimeric VIP gene driven by the polyoma promoter were produced. Behavioral studies revealed learning impairment and prolonged retardation in memory acquisition in the genetically altered animals. Furthermore, reduced performance was observed when the male transgenic mice were tested for sexual activity in the presence of receptive females. Surprisingly, radioimmunoassays showed an approx 20% decrease in the VIP content of the transgenic mice brains. To directly assess genetically reduced VIP content as a cause for learning impairment, transgenic mice carrying diphtheria toxin-encoding sequences driven by the rat VIP promoter were created. These animals had reduced brain VIP and exhibited deficiencies in learning abilities, strongly supporting an important neurobiological function for VIP in vivo.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chimera
  • Diphtheria Toxin / biosynthesis
  • Diphtheria Toxin / genetics
  • Exons
  • Female
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Male
  • Memory
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Rats
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Sexual Behavior, Animal*
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / biosynthesis*
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / genetics*


  • Diphtheria Toxin
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide