A cross-national self-report measure of depressive symptomatology

Int Psychogeriatr. 1993 Fall;5(2):147-56. doi: 10.1017/s1041610293001486.


The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was administered in Swedish to two representative samples, one aged 84 to 90 (mean = 87), the second aged 29 to 95 (mean = 61). There were both linear and quadratic differences with age: the oldest individuals were highest on depressive symptoms, but younger adults were higher than middle-aged. Dimensions or subscales identified by previous studies were generally replicated, including a sadness and depressed mood factor, a psychomotor retardation and loss of energy factor, and a well-being factor (on which items are reverse-scored to indicate depression). The findings support cross-national use of the CES-D to assess self-reported symptoms of depression in adults and older adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Geriatric Assessment
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data*
  • Sweden / epidemiology