Recognizing depth-rotated objects: evidence and conditions for three-dimensional viewpoint invariance

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1993 Dec;19(6):1162-82. doi: 10.1037//0096-1523.19.6.1162.


Five experiments on the effects of changes of depth orientation on (a) priming the naming of briefly flashed familiar objects, (b) matching individual sample volumes (geons), and (c) classifying unfamiliar objects (that could readily be decomposed into an arrangement of distinctive geons) all revealed immediate (i.e., not requiring practice) depth invariance. The results can be understood in terms of 3 conditions derived from a model of object recognition (I. Biederman, 1987; J. E. Hummel & I. Biederman, 1992) that have to be satisfied for immediate depth invariance: (a) that the stimuli be capable of activating viewpoint-invariant (e.g., geon) structural descriptions (GSDs), (b) that the GSDs be distinctive (different) for each stimulus, and (c) that the same GSD be activated in original and tested views. The stimuli used in several recent experiments documenting extraordinary viewpoint dependence violated these conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Depth Perception*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Reaction Time
  • Rotation*
  • Visual Perception*