We have characterized at the DNA and protein levels a mutant factor IX, factor IX Strasbourg 2, which is responsible for a severe form (< 0.01 U/ml) of haemophilia B. Factor IX Strasbourg 2 has a higher molecular weight than normal factor IX. A mutation G-->A at position 6365 of the gene was demonstrated by DNA sequencing and confirmed by restriction mapping which showed absence of a Hae III site. This leads to the substitution of glutamine for arginine at position -4 of the propeptide. Factor IX Strasbourg 2 was purified from plasma by DEAE Sepharose chromatography and immunoaffinity and relative to normal factor IX, binding of calcium to the mutant protein was clearly reduced in calcium lactate agarose gel. Quantification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues gave about 50% carboxylation as compared to normal factor IX. Microsequencing of the NH2-terminal part of factor IX Strasbourg 2 confirmed the attachment of the propeptide and the mutation Arg-->Gln. Activation of factor IX Strasbourg 2 by purified factor XIa was found to be retarded as compared to normal factor IX, but after activation the mutant factor IXa was able to activate factor X. In conclusion, factor IX Strasbourg 2 circulates with the attached propeptide and shows reduced gamma-carboxylation and delayed activation by factor XIa but a normal capacity to activate factor X after total cleavage by factor XIa.