Schizotypal and paranoid personality disorder in the relatives of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders: a review

Schizophr Res. 1993 Dec;11(1):81-92. doi: 10.1016/0920-9964(93)90041-g.


This review considers the possible familial relationship of schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders (SPD, PPD) to schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective disorders (AD). There have been few controlled studies on familial risk of SPD and PPD based on direct semi-structured interviews of relatives, blind to proband diagnosis. Three of six studies reported increased familial risk of SPD for SCZ probands, but with considerable variability in estimates of this risk. None of four studies reported a significant relationship between AD and familial SPD. There is substantial but less consistent evidence for a familial relationship between PPD and SCZ: three of six studies supported such a relationship, but one large study reported increased familial risk of PPD for AD and not for SCZ probands. There is also some evidence that negative symptoms are most characteristic of SPD in relatives of SCZ probands. Also discussed are issues concerning the adequacy of current criteria for defining schizophrenia spectrum pathology, and of diagnostic methods in this area.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adoption
  • Affective Disorders, Psychotic / diagnosis
  • Affective Disorders, Psychotic / genetics*
  • Affective Disorders, Psychotic / psychology
  • Humans
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder / diagnosis
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder / genetics*
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder / psychology
  • Risk Factors
  • Schizophrenia / diagnosis
  • Schizophrenia / genetics*
  • Schizophrenic Psychology*
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder / diagnosis
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder / genetics*
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder / psychology