The pre-, peri-, and postnatal histories for two infants who suffered respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are presented. Each infant was diagnosed with RDS within 24 hours after birth, placed on high-frequency jet ventilation, and passed auditory brainstem response (ABR) screening prior to hospital discharge. Both infants were enrolled in a neonatal follow-up program with no report of hearing loss during the first year of life. At 2.5 years of age, each infant was found to have severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Neither infant suffered kidney failure, rubella, cytomegalovirus, or genetic involvement. Audiologic monitoring after hospital discharge was not performed because each infant passed the ABR screen. Thus, the date of onset and/or progression of hearing loss are unknown. Until additional research findings are available, we recommend that the hearing of any infant diagnosed with RDS be monitored frequently until 3 years of age.