Gene therapy strategies designed to combat haemophilia B, caused by defects in clotting factor IX, have so far concentrated on ex vivo approaches. We have now evaluated adenoviral vector-mediated expression of human factor IX in vivo. Injection of the vector Av1H9B, which encodes human factor IX cDNA, into the tail veins of mice resulted in efficient liver transduction and plasma levels of human factor IX that would be therapeutic for haemophilia B patients. However, levels slowly declined to baseline by nine weeks and were not re-established by a second vector injection. These results address both the advantages and obstacles to the use of adenoviral vectors for treatment of haemophilia B.