A comparison study was made between attitudes of asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents toward cigarettes and smoking. Subjects were 67 asthmatic 9th- to 12th-grade students, of whom 38 (57%) had active asthma with recurrent cough and/or dyspneic attacks and 29 (43%) had reactive airway disease and/or the least severe form of asthma expressed by recurrent cough. The control group included 62 nonasthmatic students from the same high school. All subjects completed a questionnaire to determine attitudes, beliefs, and intentions regarding smoking. Their responses suggested that the group at highest risk of becoming smokers were those who had previously had asthma. The same adolescents had a more positive attitude toward cigarettes and smoking, a stronger intention to become smokers, and a self-image more closely linked with their perceptions of smokers. Thus, these adolescents may represent a high-risk group for becoming smokers in the future.