A rapid and sensitive PCR strategy employed for amplification and sequencing of porA from a single colony-forming unit of Neisseria meningitidis

Gene. 1993 Dec 31;137(2):153-62. doi: 10.1016/0378-1119(93)90001-j.


The predicted amino acid sequence was determined for the class-1 outer membrane protein, PorA, from a B:15:P1.7,3 strain of Neisseria meningitidis that is currently causing an epidemic of meningitis in Northern Chile. The P1.7,3 PorA showed a unique sequence in the exposed loop 4 of the putative porin structure that is different from all the reported PorA sequences. Based on the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the P1.7,3 porA, we designed two sets of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) primers that specifically amplified porA from any N. meningitidis strain, and a third set of primers that amplified porA only from the P1.7,3 strain. Using these primers, we developed a sensitive double hot-start nested PCR (HNPCR) strategy that could amplify porA and generate nt sequence from as low as a single colony-forming unit. This strategy consisted of three phases of PCR. The first two phases were designed to generate amplified target DNA that could be directly visualized by ethidium bromide staining starting from one to two molecules of Neisseria genome. The third phase was designed to generate a sequence of several hundred nt directly from the amplified DNA. A number of culture-negative cerebrospinal fluid samples from individuals suspected of meningitis during a vaccine trial were analyzed by this strategy to obtain more accurate information on the actual number of cases that occurred in the study and the non-study populations. The basic HNPCR strategy described here could be applied to amplify and sequence target DNAs from any low-copy-number biological sample.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Chile / epidemiology
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Meningococcal Infections / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Meningococcal Infections / epidemiology
  • Meningococcal Infections / microbiology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neisseria meningitidis / genetics*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Porins / genetics*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods*


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Porins
  • porin protein, Neisseria

Associated data

  • GENBANK/L02929
  • GENBANK/L11589
  • GENBANK/L11590
  • GENBANK/L11591
  • GENBANK/L11592
  • GENBANK/L11593
  • GENBANK/L11594
  • GENBANK/L24529
  • GENBANK/Z15047
  • GENBANK/Z15048