Treatment of grade-IIIb open tibial fractures. A prospective randomised comparison of external fixation and non-reamed locked nailing

J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994 Jan;76(1):13-9.


Severe open fractures of the tibia have a high incidence of complications and a poor outcome. The most usual method of stabilisation is by external fixation, but the advent of small diameter locking intramedullary nails has introduced a new option. We report the early results of a randomised, prospective study comparing external fixation with non-reamed locked nails in grade-IIIb open tibial fractures. Of 29 patients, 15 were treated by nails and 14 by external fixation. Both groups had the same initial management, soft-tissue procedures, and early bone grafting. All 29 fractures healed within nine months, but the nailed group had slightly better motion and less final angulation. Complications included one deep infection and two pin-track infections in the external fixator group and one deep infection and one vascular problem in the nailed group. Although the differences in healing and range of motion were not statistically significant, we found that the nailed fractures were consistently easier to manage, especially in terms of soft-tissue procedures and bone grafting. It is the treatment preferred by patients and does not require the same high level of patient compliance as external fixation. The only factors against nailing are the longer operating time and the greater need for fluoroscopy. We consider that locked non-reamed nailing is the treatment of choice for grade-IIIb open tibial fractures.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bone Nails
  • External Fixators
  • Female
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal
  • Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary / methods
  • Fracture Healing
  • Fractures, Open / diagnostic imaging
  • Fractures, Open / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiography
  • Tibial Fractures / diagnostic imaging
  • Tibial Fractures / surgery*