In view of the reported variation in the association between HLA antigens and Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus (J.D.M.) among different Caucasian populations, we have undertaken a study of these antigens among 44 Caucasian Newfoundlanders and 135 matched controls. We have also studied the allotypic markers for Immunoglobulin G (Gm) and variants of C3 among 36 of these patients. We found that both HLA--B8 and B15 were increased among the patient group, resulting in a relative risk of 3.9 and 4.4 respectively. While these values are the highest to be described for J.D.M. among Caucasians, and fell outside the 95% confidence intervals for the combined relative risk calculated from published series, it is still possible that they can be accounted for by sampling. The combination of the two antigens increased the relative risk for J.D.M. in an additive fashion. Additionally, we also found that the combination of HLA B8 and B18, but not B15 and B18, also appear to act in an additive manner. The incidence of Gm allotypes and variants of C3 were not different in the J.D.M. group from those observed among controls.