This study compared the effects of theoretically driven interventions on compliance with mammography utilization. A 2 x 2 factorial design yielded four groups: a control group, a belief intervention group, an informational intervention group, and a belief/informational intervention group. A probability sample of 301 women, age 35 and older, without a history of breast cancer were randomly assigned to groups. Subjects in the intervention groups received individually tailored messages to alter beliefs or provider information related to mammography screening. Belief messages were developed from Health Belief Model constructs. Belief interventions significantly influenced all belief variables except perceived susceptibility in the desired direction. Women in the belief/informational intervention group were almost four times more likely than those in the control group to comply with mammography recommendations in the year following intervention (odds ratio = 3.75). In addition, belief variables and intervention significantly predicted mammography compliance 1 year postintervention.