A very high level oxidative damage to DNA occurs during normal metabolism. In each rat cell, the steady-state level of this damage is estimated to be about 10(6) oxidative adducts, and about 10(5) new adducts are formed daily. This endogenous DNA damage appears to be a major contributor to cancer and aging. The oxidative damage rate in mammalian species with a high metabolic rate, short life span, and high age-specific cancer rate such as in rats is much higher than the rate in humans, long-lived mammals with a lower metabolic rate, and a lower age-specific cancer rate. It is argued that deficiency of micronutrients, that protect against oxidative DNA damage, is a major contributor to human cancer. Epidemiological studies, a large body of experimental evidence, and theoretical work on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis point to mitogenesis as a major contributor to cancer. Dividing cells, compared to nondividing cells, are at an increased risk for mutations due to: 1.) conversion of DNA adducts to mutations; 2.) chance of mitotic recombination, gene conversion, and nondisjunction; and, 3.) increased exposure of DNA to mutagens. Mitogenesis also increases the probability of gene amplification and loss of 5-methylcytosine. Dietary interventions that lower mitogenesis, such as calorie restriction, decrease cancer incidence.