Effect of carbohydrate composition on fluid balance, gastric emptying, and exercise performance

Int J Sport Nutr. 1993 Dec;3(4):408-17. doi: 10.1123/ijsn.3.4.408.


This study examined the effects of serial feedings of different carbohydrate (CHO) solutions on plasma volume, gastric emptying (GE), and performance during prolonged cycling exercise. Solutions containing 6 g% glucose-sucrose (CHO-6GS), 8.3 g% high fructose corn syrup (CHO-8HF), 6.3 g% high fructose corn syrup + 2 g% glucose polymer (CHO-8HP), and a water placebo (WP) were compared. Ten trained male cyclists performed four cycling trials consisting of 105 min at 70% VO2max followed by a 15-min all-out, self-paced performance ride. Every 15 min the men consumed one of the four test solutions. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after exercise to determine blood glucose and plasma volume changes. There were no significant differences in performance, GE, or plasma volume changes between trials. Blood glucose was significantly elevated at the 105-min time-point in all CHO trials when compared to WP. The CHO-8HF and CHO-8HP drinks resulted in a significantly higher delivery of CHO to the intestine. Higher rates of CHO oxidation during the steady-state ride were observed only with the CHO-6GS drink.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects*
  • Hematologic Tests
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Physical Exertion / drug effects
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance / drug effects*


  • Dietary Carbohydrates