Two studies of the clinical effectiveness of the nicotine patch with different counseling treatments

Chest. 1994 Feb;105(2):524-33. doi: 10.1378/chest.105.2.524.


Objective: To assess the effectiveness of transdermal nicotine therapy for smoking cessation and suppression of withdrawal severity in conjunction with two different adjuvant counseling treatments.

Design: Two independent randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trials.

Setting: Smoking cessation clinic.

Subjects: Eighty-eight (study 1) and 112 (study 2) adult volunteers motivated to quit smoking.

Interventions: Eight weeks of 22-mg transdermal nicotine therapy with group counseling (study 1); 4 weeks of 22 mg followed by 2 weeks of 11-mg transdermal nicotine therapy with brief individual counseling (study 2).

Main outcome measures: Modified point prevalence (7 consecutive days of nonsmoking) at the end of patch treatment and 6 months after treatment initiation was assessed by self-report and biochemically confirmed; survival analyses were also conducted for both studies to compare treatment efficacy. Also, we examined the impact of the nicotine patch on specific withdrawal symptoms (anger, anxiety, awakening, difficulty concentrating, depression, hunger, impatience, and craving).

Results: Transdermal nicotine treatment produced higher cessation rates at the end of treatment than did placebo with both adjuvant counseling interventions: 59 percent vs 40 percent (p < 0.05 in study 1) and 37 percent vs 20 percent (p < 0.05 in study 2), respectively. Smoking cessation efficacy was maintained 6 months after initiation of treatment: 34 percent vs 21 percent (p = 0.08 in study 1) and 18 percent vs 7 percent (p = 0.05 in study 2). Survival analyses also revealed significant group differences in efficacy in both studies. Nicotine patches also suppressed a variety of withdrawal symptoms, including craving in the first weeks after patients quit smoking.

Conclusion: Transdermal nicotine effectively augments smoking cessation rates with two different types of counseling treatment. Overall, the nicotine patch approximately doubles the sustained rate of smoking cessation. Additionally, the nicotine patch provides relief from some tobacco withdrawal symptoms.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Weight
  • Carbon Monoxide / metabolism
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cotinine / blood
  • Counseling*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage*
  • Nicotine / blood
  • Placebos
  • Psychotherapy, Group
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking Cessation* / methods
  • Smoking Cessation* / psychology
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Placebos
  • Nicotine
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Cotinine