Nine children (6 boys, 3 girls) were diagnosed with a primary endobronchial or pulmonary parenchymal neoplasm. The average age at diagnosis was 9 years. Presenting complaints included cough (7), fever (5), pulmonary infection (3), respiratory distress (3), weight loss (2), pain (2), and hemoptysis (1). Pulmonary x-rays showed persistent atelectasis, pneumonic infiltrates or mass lesions. A computed tomography scan was performed in 8. Five of six endobronchial tumors were diagnosed with bronchoscopy and biopsy. Treatment consisted of thoracotomy and pulmonary resection in 7 cases and laser resection in 2. The pathologic diagnoses were bronchial carcinoid (3), bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (plasma cell granuloma) of the bronchus (2) and of the lung parenchyma (1), fibrosarcoma (1), and rhabdomyosarcoma (1). Postoperative chemotherapy was given only to the patient with pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma; this child died. One child has developed a local recurrence while 7 children are alive and free of disease at an average of 2.4 years postresection. Pulmonary neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric age group and represent a wide spectrum of pathology. Including the present series, 383 tumors have been described. Seventy-six percent were malignant. Early investigation and surgical intervention are essential in children with persistent pulmonary symptoms or x-ray abnormalities. In most cases, the prognosis is excellent with complete surgical resection; however, malignancies other than bronchial adenoma are associated with significantly mortality.