Respiratory rate, tidal volume, dynamic lung compliance, functional residual capacity, and pulmonary resistance were measured withim 24 hours of cardiac catheterization in 25 infants, 12 of whom had increased pulmonary blood flow and 13 of whom had decreased PBF. There were no differences in the two groups of patients with respect to VT and FRC. Respiratory rate and pulmonary resistance were higher in infants with increased PBF. Lung compliance was significantly lower in infants with increased PBF (4.9 ml/cm H2O) than in those with decreased PBF (8.9 ml/cm H2O) (P less than 0.01). The decrease in CL in infants with increased PBF significantly correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure (r = 0.798). No correaltion was found between CL and left atrial pressure or magnitude of the left-to-right shunt. Compliance was normal in patients with increased PBF and normal PAP, suggesting that PAP and not PBF is the primary factor that affects CL in patients with intracardiac left-to-right shunts.