Comparison has been made of measurements of functional residue capacity (FRC) by a helium gas dilution (He) and a nitrogen washout (N2) technique. Twenty infants (median gestational age, 29.5 weeks) were studied at a median postnatal age of 25 days. No infant was oxygen dependent. The coefficient of repeatability of FRC (He) was 6.4 mL/kg and of FRC (N2), 6.3 mL/kg. The coefficient of repeatability of the two methods combined was 13.8 mL/kg. In 10 infants the results of two techniques differed by more than 20% of the mean FRC; those infants were born at a significantly earlier gestation than the rest of the cohort (P < 0.01). We conclude that, except in very immature infants, techniques for measuring FRC (He) and FRC (N2) yield reproducible and comparable results in convalescent premature infants.