Bisubstrates: substances that interact with renal contraluminal organic anion and organic cation transport systems. I. Amines, piperidines, piperazines, azepines, pyridines, quinolines, imidazoles, thiazoles, guanidines and hydrazines

Pflugers Arch. 1993 Nov;425(3-4):280-99. doi: 10.1007/BF00374179.


In order to evaluate whether N-containing substrates interact with the organic "anion" (p-aminohippurate, PAH) or only with the organic "cation" (N1-methylnicotinamide, NMeN) transport system or with both, the stop-flow peritubular capillary microperfusion method was applied in the rat kidney in situ and the apparent Ki values of several classes or organic substrate against contraluminal NMeN and PAH transport were determined. Organic "anion" and organic "cation" transport are in inverted commas because neither transporter sees the degree of ionization in bulk solution, and they also accept nonionizable substrates [Ullrich KJ, Rumrich G (1992) Pflügers Arch 421:286-288]. Amines must be sufficiently hydrophobic (phenylethylamine, piperidine, piperazine) in order to interact with NMeN transport. Additional Cl, Br, NO2 or other electronegative groups render them inhibitory towards PAH transport also. Such bisubstrate amines were identified as follows: metoclopramide, bromopride, diphenhydramine, bromodiphenhydramine, verapamil, citalopram, ketamine, mefloquine, ipsapirone, buspirone, trazodone, H7 and trifluoperazine. Imidazole analogues interact with both transporters if they bear sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl or aryl groups or electronegative sidegroups. Bisubstrate imidazole analogues are tinidazole, pilocarpine, clonidine, azidoclonidine and cimetidine. Pyridines and thiazoles interact with the NMeN transporter if they have an additional ring-attached NH2 group. Again with an additional Cl, Br, or NO2 group the aminopyridines and aminothiazoles also become inhibitors for the PAH transporter. Amongst the guanidines only substances with several electronegative side-groups such as guanfacine, amiloride, benzylamiloride and ranitidine, interact with both transporters. Amongst the phenylhydrazines only 4-bromophenylhydrazine interacts with the NMeN transporter and 4-nitrophenylhydrazine with both transporters. Quinoline (isoquinoline) and its amino and hydroxy analogues interact with both transporters, their pKa values correlate directly with the affinity to the NMeN transporter and reciprocally with their affinity to the PAH transporter. In experiments with labelled substrates only the sufficiently hydrophilic cimetidine, amiloride and ranitidine show a saturable transport, which can be inhibited by probenecid (apalcillin) and tetraethylammonium in an additive manner. The highly hydrophobic substrates verapamil, citalopram, imipramine, diltiazem and clonidine enter the cell very fast in an unsaturable and uninhibitable manner, apparently in the undissociated form, since N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, which--disregarding its ionization--is similarly hydrophobic, shows a transport behaviour similar to that of tetraethylammonium [Ullrich et al. (1991) Pflügers Arch 419:84-92]. Ethidium bromide and dimidium bromide, which have a permanent cationic quaternary nitrogen and two sufficiently electronegative NH2 groups, also interact with both transporters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anions / metabolism*
  • Biological Transport, Active / drug effects
  • Buffers
  • Cations / metabolism*
  • Cell Membrane Permeability / drug effects
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives
  • Niacinamide / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • p-Aminohippuric Acid / metabolism


  • Anions
  • Buffers
  • Cations
  • Niacinamide
  • N(1)-methylnicotinamide
  • p-Aminohippuric Acid