Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is responsible for HTLV-I associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Both diseases have been well described in individuals living in Japan, West Indies, Seychelles Islands and Columbia where infection with HTLV-I is considered endemic and in persons whose descendants originated from these endemic areas. We report here 4 cases of HAM/TSP in 4 natives from 4 different tribal groups from British Columbia (B.C.). These are the first case reports of HTLV-I linked diseases found among North American Aboriginals. Possible routes of infection for HTLV-I infection included sexual transmission, breast feeding, blood transfusions and IV drug use. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I in North American Native population is unknown and we suggest that it is endemic in this ethnic group.