This publication updates the reference human liver protein map. By microsequencing, 27 spots or 34 polypeptide chains were identified. The most abundant polypeptides detected on the silver stained liver map were key elements in major hepatic biochemical pathways. The new polypeptides and previously known proteins are listed in a table and/or labeled on the protein map, thus providing the 1993 reference human liver SWISS-2DPAGE database. SWISS-2DPAGE and the SWISS-PROT protein sequence databases are closely linked together through the use of common accession numbers.