The relationship of respiratory morbidity at follow up to the development and type of "neonatal" chronic lung disease has been assessed. Three groups, each of ten infants matched for gestational age and gender, were compared. Group A had Type I chronic lung disease and group B bronchopulmonary (BPD), the most severe form of neonatal chronic lung disease (Type II CLD); group C had developed neither Type I or Type II CLD. Group B compared to group A compared to group C required a significantly longer duration of oxygen therapy on the neonatal unit. All three groups were prospectively followed; the occurrence of symptoms was documented in each of the first 3 years of life and lung function was measured using a plethysmographic technique at the end of year 1. In all 3 years a significantly greater proportion of groups A and B were symptomatic compared to group C, but there was no significant difference in the proportion so affected between groups A and B. Airway resistance was higher in both groups A and B compared to C but only reached statistical significance on comparing groups A and C. We conclude oxygen dependency beyond 1 month of age, irrespective of the development of BPD, significantly increases respiratory morbidity at follow up.