Vitamin K1 concentration in breast-fed neonates after oral or intramuscular administration of a single dose of a new mixed-micellar preparation of phylloquinone

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1993 May;16(4):435-9. doi: 10.1097/00005176-199305000-00016.


The plasma disposition of a new mixed-micellar preparation (KONAKION MM, Roche) of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) has been studied in 25 healthy, fully breast-fed, newborn babies, randomized to receive a single dose of either 1.5 mg i.m. (11 babies) or 3 mg p.o. (14 babies). Venous blood samples were collected at 25 h, 4 days, and 24 days. After p.o. administration, the median plasma phylloquinone concentration increased to 89 ng/ml after 24 h, then decreased to 51 ng/ml after 4 days; the respective concentrations after i.m. injection were 146 ng/ml and 34 ng/ml. The higher plasma phylloquinone level in the i.m. group after 24 h was not statistically significant compared with that of the p.o. group, but the reversed higher concentration in the p.o. group after 4 days was significant (p < 0.01). After 24 days the median plasma phylloquinone had decreased to 0.44 ng/ml (range 0.19-1.44) and 1.05 ng/ml (range 0.37-1.87) in the p.o. and i.m. groups, respectively. There was a significant difference between these plasma concentrations (p < 0.01). They were within or above the reference adult fasting range (0.17-0.68 ng/ml). The narrow range of plasma concentrations at 24 h and 4 days suggests a greater consistency of absorption from this micellar preparation than from other emulsion-based preparations. Further studies are required to assess the long-term protection of a single oral dose against late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Until such time, breast-fed babies given this preparation orally should receive (an) additional dose(s).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Breast Feeding*
  • Female
  • Half-Life
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn / blood
  • Infant, Newborn / metabolism*
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Male
  • Micelles
  • Random Allocation
  • Time Factors
  • Vitamin K 1 / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin K 1 / blood
  • Vitamin K 1 / pharmacokinetics*
  • Vitamin K Deficiency / prevention & control


  • Micelles
  • Vitamin K 1