This study evaluated the mortality and cancer incidence of 1178 men and 2492 women who had worked at least 10 years in a large rubber manufacturing facility up to the cohort assembly period between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 1983. The follow-up period was from 1 January 1979 to 31 December 1988. For all causes of death no increase in risk was observed. The male workers had a nonsignificantly increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all cancers [SMR 116, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 90-151] and a significantly increased SMR for injuries (SMR 174, 95% CI 111-257). For the men the all-cancer standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 146 (95% CI 119-172), and the SIR for brain cancer was significantly greater than 100 (SIR 500, 95% CI 233-767). Among the female workers only a significant excess risk for laryngeal tumors (SIR 1430, 95% CI 172-5160) was found. Because of the limited amount of data and the many subgroups formed, the occupational genesis of the cancer excess should not be overinterpreted. In addition, there was a possibility of confounding from smoking and other nonoccupational factors.