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, 684, 19-34

Retinoic Acid Signal Transduction Pathways


Retinoic Acid Signal Transduction Pathways

M Leid et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci.


Complexity in the retinoid signaling system arises from a combination of several forms of retinoic acid which possess differential activities, multiple cytoplasmic binding proteins and nuclear receptors that have distinct ligand specificities and functional properties, and the existence of polymorphic retinoic acid response elements. Additional diversity appears to be generated by heterodimeric interactions between the two classes of nuclear retinoic acid receptors and between retinoic acid receptors and some other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Thus, a complex array of combinatorial effects is beginning to emerge that may account for the pleiotropic effects of retinoids.

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