White blood cell DNA adducts were measured in coke oven workers, in residents from the area next to the coke oven in Silesia, Poland (highly industrialized region), and in residents from the rural area of Poland using the 32P-postlabeling technique. This method detected aromatic adducts including adducts formed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Highest levels of adducts in DNA were seen in the group of coke battery workers (6.9 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Seasonal variations in levels of DNA adducts were observed both in residents of the district near the coke oven area and individuals from the rural area of Poland. Blood samples collected from people living near the coke oven in winter showed much higher levels of DNA adducts than blood samples obtained in summer (5.0 adducts/10(8) nucleotides in winter and 1.4 adducts/10(8) nucleotides in summer). The difference in the level of DNA adducts between winter and summer was smaller in the group of people living in the rural area (3.2 adducts/10(8) and 2.2 adducts/10(8), respectively). In most cases the levels of X-spots correlated with the levels of other DNA adducts. Correlation coefficients(r) between the levels of X-spots and other adducts ranged between 0.46 and 0.74 (p < 0.05), except for coke oven workers where no correlation was observed.