The prevalence of mycoplasmal and ureaplasmal recovery from tracheobronchial lavage specimens and prevalence of mycoplasmal recovery from pharyngeal swab specimens from cats with (28) or without (18) pulmonary disease were determined. Mycoplasmas were recovered from tracheobronchial lavage specimens in 21% of cats with pulmonary disease, but in no cats without pulmonary disease; this difference is significant (P = 0.04). Mycoplasmal recovery from tracheobronchial lavage specimens was not significantly associated with concurrent Pasteurella spp isolation, septic inflammation, or bronchitis. Ureaplasmas were only isolated from a tracheobronchial lavage specimen in 1 cat with pulmonary disease and in no cats without pulmonary disease. Similar mycoplasmal recovery rates were found for pharyngeal swab specimens from cats with (39%) or without (35%) pulmonary disease. Seemingly, mycoplasmas are part of the normal pharyngeal flora in approximately a third of the feline population, but mycoplasmas are not normal inhabitants of the lower respiratory tract in cats. It is unknown whether mycoplasmas isolated from tracheobronchial lavage specimens in cats with pulmonary disease are primary pathogens or opportunistic invaders. Seemingly, ureaplasmas are seldom associated with pulmonary disease in cats, and are not normal inhabitants of the trachea and bronchi of cats.