Studies on the biological effects of ozone: 3. An attempt to define conditions for optimal induction of cytokines

Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 1993 Apr;12(2):121-6.


Ozonization of blood, normally carried out with citrated blood, may be fine for the autohemotherapy of ischemic diseases but it may be at a loss when employed in viral diseases or in immunodeficiencies. We have shown that heparin, used as an anticoagulant, with the addition of 5 mM CaCl2 favors production of cytokines by leukocytes with only a modest increase in hemolysis. High plasmatic levels of glucose, glutathione, and ascorbic acid decrease cytokine's yield because these compounds act as antioxidants and quench the inducing activity of ozone. Autohemotherapy with heparinized and Ca(2+)-supplemented blood has not revealed any side effects in volunteers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood / drug effects*
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Transfusion, Autologous / methods
  • Calcium Chloride / pharmacology
  • Cells, Cultured / drug effects
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Heparin / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
  • Leukocytes / drug effects
  • Leukocytes / immunology*
  • Ozone / pharmacology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Ozone
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Heparin
  • Calcium Chloride