NZB mice spontaneously develop autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The red blood cell (RBC) autoantigen bound by pathogenic IgG autoantibodies, previously designated "X", was identified by immunoprecipitation. Autoantibody eluted from the RBC of AIHA-positive NZB mice precipitated a 105-kDa antigen that was identical in apparent molecular mass to Band 3, the RBC anion channel protein. Furthermore, the immunoblotted antigen also reacted specifically with BRIC 132, a monoclonal antibody against Band 3. The results, therefore, demonstrate that Band 3 bears autoantigenic epitopes that are important in the pathogenesis of AIHA in the NZB mouse.