Three different DNA fragments of an oleandomycin producer, Streptomyces antibioticus, conferring oleandomycin resistance were cloned in plasmid pIJ702 and expressed in Streptomyces lividans and in Streptomyces albus. These oleandomycin resistance determinants were designated as oleA (pOR400), oleB (pOR501) and oleC (pOR800). oleA and oleC are closely linked in the chromosome as they were both obtained together in two cosmid clones that were isolated from a genomic library. Sequencing of the oleC resistance determinant revealed four complete open reading frames (ORFs) and the C-terminal end of a fifth. The functions of orf1 and orf2 are unknown since they did not show significant similarity with other sequences in the data bases. The orf3 gene product has similarity with some proteins involved in iron and vitamin B12 uptake in bacteria. The orf4 gene product had a hydrophilic profile and showed important similarity with proteins containing typical ATP-binding domains characteristic of the ABC-transporter superfamily and involved in membrane transport and, particularly, with several genes conferring resistance to various macrolide antibiotics and anticancer drugs. The last gene, orf5, is translationally coupled to orf4 and codes for a hydrophobic polypeptide containing several transmembrane domains characteristic of integral membrane proteins. Subcloning and deletion experiments limited the resistance determinant to a 0.9 kb PstI-SphI fragment and only orf4 is included in this fragment. These results suggest that resistance to oleandomycin conferred by oleC (orf4) is probably due to an efflux transport system of the ABC-transporter superfamily.