Intradural perimedullary arteriovenous fistulae: results of surgical and endovascular treatment in a series of 35 cases

Neurosurgery. 1993 Jun;32(6):885-91; discussion 891. doi: 10.1227/00006123-199306000-00001.


A series of 35 patients treated for an intradural perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) between 1970 and 1990 is reported. Angiography was performed on all of the patients, leading to the diagnosis. The patients were classified into Type I (4 patients), Type II (9 patients), and Type III (22 patients). One Type I patient was not treated, two others underwent surgery, and the last one was embolized. All of the Type II AVFs were treated, two by embolization, four by direct surgery, and three by surgery after incomplete embolization. All of the Type III AVFs were treated by endovascular detachable silicone balloon. Complete occlusion of the AVF was achieved in all treated cases of Types I and II AVF and in 15 cases of Type III AVF; for the 6 other cases of Type III AVF, incomplete occlusion was achieved. In the Types I and II AVFs, partial improvement was clinically observed in only half of the patients; the others remained unchanged. The 15 patients whose Type III AVF was completely embolized recovered completely, and four patients with Type III AVF who were incompletely embolized remained unchanged; 2 other patients with Type III AVF worsened after incomplete occlusion, and 1 additional patient died a few hours after an attempt of endovascular occlusion of a cervical Type III AVF. The place of the perimedullary AVFs among the other vascular malformations involving the spinal cord is discussed according to this classification into three types. Their specific diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties are discussed, resulting in a simplified classification including two types of perimedullary AVF.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Angiography
  • Angioplasty, Balloon
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / classification
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Arteriovenous Malformations / surgery*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Dura Mater / blood supply*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neurologic Examination
  • Spinal Cord / blood supply*
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / classification
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / surgery*