Clinical outcomes of 95 second-trimester fetuses prospectively considered to have echogenic bowel at ultrasound were compared with a control group of 110 consecutive second-trimester fetuses. Among the 95 fetuses in the study group, 64 (67%) had moderately echogenic (grade 2) or markedly echogenic (grade 3) bowel relative to the liver. Among the 110 fetuses in the control group, only two (1.8%) had moderately echogenic (grade 2) bowel; the rest (98.2%) had isoechoic (grade 0) or midly echogenic (grade 1) bowel relative to the liver. Adverse outcomes occurred in 45 of the 95 fetuses (47%) with echogenic bowel compared with eight of the 110 fetuses (7.27%) in the control group (P < .01; relative risk, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.2, 13.1). Adverse outcomes included chromosomal abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal demise, or other fetal anomalies. Within the study group, adverse outcomes occurred in 40 of the 64 fetuses (62%) with grade 2 or 3 bowel echogenicity, compared with five of the 31 fetuses (16%) with grade 1 echogenicity. Echogenic bowel is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcome and this risk is confined primarily to grades 2 and 3 echogenicity.