High-dose vitamin B6 (pyridoxine-HCl, 300 mg/kg/day orally) was introduced as the initial treatment of recently manifested infantile spasms in 17 children (13 symptomatic cases with identified brain lesion and 4 cryptogenic cases). 5 of 17 children (2 cryptogenic, 2 with severe pre/perinatal brain damage and one with Sturge-Weber syndrome) were classified as responders to high-dose vitamin B6. In all 5 cases the response to vitamin B6 occurred within the first 2 weeks of treatment and within 4 weeks all patients were free of seizures. Two patients developed other seizures (partial seizures, etiologically unclear blinking attacks), but no relapse of infantile spasms was observed among the five responders to vitamin B6. No serious adverse reactions were noted. Side effects were mainly gastrointestinal symptoms, which were reversible after reduction of the dosage. Considering the life-threatening side effects of treatment with ACTH/corticosteroids or valproate, a controlled clinical trial with high-dose vitamin B6 would appear justified to either prove or disprove efficacy.